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One of the essential environmental services provided to the ecosystem is the service of pollinators. Vector pollination is an extremely valuable service for the ecosystem allowing pollen transport and consists of the transfer of pollen from the male part of the flower (anther) to the female part (stigma). Pollination represents the reproductive process of higher plants. It is through it that fertilization occurs and, consequently, the formation of fruits and seeds that will originate new plants. It can be carried out by several pollinating agents, among them: birds, bees, butterflies, wasps, and other living beings that visit flowers as a food source or that access them due to their proximity to the natural habitat.
The pollination environmental service has numerous benefits, through its role in food production and agriculture, as well as scientific development, culture and recreation, and in the conservation of biological diversity.
Pollination is essential for the sexual reproduction of plants and, in its absence, the maintenance of genetic variability between plants does not occur. Often, agricultural production is reduced or the fruits are deformed (the result of insufficient pollination) and not from the insufficient use of agrochemical inputs.
Approximately 90% of flower species worldwide are dependent on biotic pollination for reproduction and maintenance of genetic variability. Pollination is considered extremely important for the maintenance of biodiversity and for our own survival.
When asked about pollinators for agriculture, bees are the first animals we remember and the most well-known and popular of them is Apis mellifera, currently distributed on all continents, but there are many other wild pollinators, including in Brazil we have a diversity immense biological nature of these social insects.
In the case of coffee, studies conducted by the Research Network for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Pollinators, coordinated by Professor Blandina Viana, from the Federal University of Bahia, demonstrate that a greater quantity of bees in the crop, an increase in the profitability of producers may occur up to 30%, in addition to bringing other benefits, such as grain uniformity.